International Information Programs
Office of Research Issue Focus Foreign Media Reaction

August 26, 2003

August 26, 2003





**  Hambali's arrest is a "major victory" in the war on terror.


**  The seizure weakens, but does not destroy, Jemaah Islamiyah and al-Qaida.


**  International cooperation is "vital" to continued success against terrorism.


**  Southeast Asian analysts criticize the U.S refusal to extradite Hambali.




The arrest of 'the Usama Bin Laden of the Far East' is a 'breakthrough'--  Commentators worldwide celebrated the arrest of Hambali, Jemaah Islamiyah's operations chief and the likely mastermind of the Bali and Jakarta bombings.  London's influential, center-right Times billed his capture the most significant "counter-terrorism coup" since the detention of September 11 planner Khalid Sheikh Muhammad.  Australian, Malaysian and Thai journals dubbed it a "significant" victory over Hambali's "well-organized" terrorist network.


The war against terrorism is 'far from over'--  The arrest of the "critical link" between Jemaah Islamiyah and al-Qaida is a "psychological blow" against terror's "mystique of invincibility."  Indonesia's leading independent Kompas waxed optimistic that this success would open the way to uncovering terrorist networks in the region.  But writers cautioned against an "overtriumphant" attitude, noting that "to take one cog out of a wheel is not to stop it."  According to Australia's liberal Sydney Morning Herald, Hambali's "hydra-headed" network possesses an "unusual ability" to recover from human losses.  Thus, Southeast Asian governments must remain "vigilantly on guard" to prevent future terrorist activity.


International cooperation was pivotal to nabbing Hambali--  Analysts hailed unprecedented levels of international cooperation in intelligence gathering and "hard-edged" police work as the key to apprehending the Jemaah Islamiyah leader.  The liberal Melbourne Age observed that this level of cooperation "was unthinkable even a few years ago."  Skeptics, however, criticized American dominance of anti-terror operations in the region.  Malaysia's government-influenced New Straights Times pummeled the U.S. for "shoving" cooperation "down people's throats."


American incarceration fuels a U.S.-Indonesian extradition battle--  Charging the U.S. "self-styled supercop" with treating South East Asian countries as players "peripheral to its own interests," regional critics pressed for Hambali's hand-over to Indonesian authorities.  America "unilaterally detained" the terror leader without respect for Indonesian law, expressed Jakarta's Muslim-intellectual Republika."  A Malaysian writer advised the U.S. to avoid an "unseemly rush" to punish Hambali.  Thailand's liberal, elite Matichon scolded: "While the U.S. government usually urges and pressures other nations to respect human rights, it neglects to do the same."


EDITOR: Andrew Borda

EDITOR'S NOTE: This analysis is based on 24 reports from 7 countries, August 16-24, 2003.  Editorial excerpts from each country are listed from the most recent date.




BRITAIN: "A Dangerous Man"


The influential, center-right Times held (Internet version 8/16): "The arrest in Thailand of the most significant international counter-terrorism coup since the capture last March of al-Qaida's operations chief...Khalid Sheikh Muhammad.  Hambali, who worked closely with him, is al-Qaida's principal operational asset in South-East Asia, implicated in almost every Islamist terrorist assault from the attack on the USS Cole to the September 11 atrocities in the US.  Above all, he was crucial to al-Qaida's campaign to radicalize Asian Islamists.  Hambali is considered, with good reason, to be one of the most dangerous recruits to have emerged from Usama Bin Laden's Afghan terrorist boot camps....  His fanaticism and operational efficiency were key to the conversion of Jemaah Islamiyah [JI], Asia's home-grown network of Islamist extremism, from a covert group of fundamentalist activists to the deadly and increasingly well-organized terrorist network responsible for the Bali nightclub atrocity, this month's car-bombing of the Marriott in Jakarta, and other attacks planned or executed right across the region, from Singapore to Manila....  Hambali's value to American and Asian interrogators relates to the future quite as much as to the past.  He has intimate, high-level knowledge of the workings of al-Qaida and much to tell, if he talks, about the escalating menace of Jemaah Islamiyah. He may be the only man who knows the full story behind the Bali bombings. But the hope is that his capture, avenged though it will almost certainly be by terrorist bombers, may help to avert a much more ambitious attack, not necessarily in Asia, which is thought to be in the active planning stage....  With his arrest, Asians can sleep a little easier--but only if their governments stay vigilantly on guard."




AUSTRALIA: "Big Wins In The War On Terror”


The conservative Australian stated (8/16): “One down, many more now to come....  Reports that Hambali was taken while planning an attack on the APEC meeting scheduled for October in Thailand demonstrate how dangerous he is.  His arrest does not mean JI is no longer a threat but it does reduce its operational capacity and other arrests will now likely follow.  That Hambali was taken by U.S. agents and with the co-operation of the Thai and Indonesian governments demonstrates that great things are being achieved in the war against terror in Southeast Asia....  Hambali's detention in particular is a big win, demonstrating that the international alliance fighting terror is moving in the right direction.”


“The Capture Of Hambali”

The liberal Sydney Morning Herald held (8/16): “Terrorist organizations, hydra-headed, are not easily destroyed.  And usually it is not heads that are cut off, but limbs, which easily grow again.  The capture, then, of Riduan Isamuddin, known as Hambali, is a significant victory in the war against terrorism....  While the war on terrorism must be fought on many fronts, Hambali's case shows how vital and immediate is the need for continuing hard-edged police work.  Hambali was arrested at Ayutthaya, the former royal capital of Thailand.  If he was indeed there planning an attack to take place during the next Asia-Pacific Economic Co-operation meeting in October--when heads of government from the U.S. and Asia would be present--his capture is more than a reason for satisfaction at police work well done.  It could mean Hambali's capture has averted a terrorist attack of unparalleled seriousness.”


“Hambali’s Capture Is Part Of A Wider Fight”


The liberal Melbourne Age observed (8/16): “Hambali's detention...demonstrates a level of international co-operation that would have been unthinkable even a few years ago.  That co-operation has been imperfect, but the intent of the coalition has been genuine and resolute.  These latest arrests illustrate quite clearly that the 'war on terrorism' is not a conventional conflict and that intelligence gathering and intelligence co-operation is vital if terrorism is to be defeated.  The fight against the wanton and senseless violence of terrorism dressed up as religious or political warfare is far from over.  The challenge for all of us is to understand that this battle is a long-term one with victory still a long way off.  Nevertheless, Hambali's capture is very good news indeed.”


INDONESIA: “Demands of Islamic Leaders”


Muslim-intellectual Republika remarked (8/25): “The Hambali mystery is unveiled yet.  Muslim leaders are urging the government to explain openly who Hambali actually is, the terrorist key suspect...the U.S. believes is a liaison between Jemaah Islamiyah and al-Qaida.  The Muslim communities find it necessary that the Hambali issue be unveiled clearly by trying him in Indonesia.  In a fair and just trial, we would then be able to find out who actually Hambali is, whether the charges against him are true or whether he is part of an international conspiracy to corner Islam....  The demands by the Muslim leaders that Hambali be tried in Indonesia only aim to make it clear who is the mastermind of the terrorist actions.  Therefore, a sovereign country must not just bow to the desire of the U.S. that has unilaterally detained Hambali without respecting Indonesian law.”


“Reprimand On Money Laundering”


Independent Tempo articulated (8/24): “[Ambassador] Boyce’s pressure against Indonesia should be read as a sign that the U.S. is worried that the illegal money entering Indonesia could be used to finance terrorism.  Indonesia can no longer make excuses because, in addition to Bali and Marriott, there have been other bombings the world community noticed and intelligence bodies of many countries recorded.”


"Once More, Interoffice Coordination"


Protestant Jakarta Suara Pembaruan editorialized (8/22): "Interoffice coordination remains something expensive in this republic.  When we want to participate in the examination of Hambali, accused of perpetrating acts of terrorism in Indonesia, we feel the lack of interoffice coordination....  Apart from legal niceties like the citizenship of the accused, and the locations of his crimes--said to extend from Bali to Medan, Jakarta, Batam, across to the Southern Philippines and even to cities which are the pride of the U.S.--what is most important for us is to interrogate the suspect and confirm whether or not he is a perpetrator of terrorism....  We know that Hambali is an important suspect behind the acts of terrorism in Indonesia and some other places.  The touch of Hambali's hand is said to have marked the end of a sense of security for the people of the world.  It is not surprising that Thailand, the Philippines, Malaysia and also the U.S. have since the beginning declared their wish to arrest and interrogate Hambali, and bring him to justice.  The United States has given the green light to Indonesian investigators to take part in the examination of Hambali....  We remind the government, the people are tired of waiting for the results of investigations into acts of terrorism.   And of waiting to know who the mastermind is behind all these barbaric acts."


“Is It Necessary to Seek Hambali’s Extradition?”


Leading independent Kompas noted (8/20): “On the Hambali case, the Indonesian government could as well request the U.S. extradite Hambali despite the lack of an extradition agreement between the two countries....  For the Indonesian government, the question is whether the U.S. feels it necessary to extradite him.  And the next question is whether the U.S. will be willing to do so....  It has to be kept in mind that extradition is not a mere legal issue.  Extradition can very likely become an economic or political issue.  This is what would happen if Indonesia asked Hambali’s extradition....  Politically, extradition of Hambali is very difficult.  The escape of Al-Ghozi from the Philippine jail; the weak law enforcement in Indonesia, and other issues will be used as the basis for the U.S. to decline the extradition of Hambali.”


“Quarrel On Hambali”


Independent Media Indonesia expressed (8/20): “The hunt by international police for Hambali ended a success....  The war against terrorism in Indonesia has become a very tiring issue and even dangerous because it is always linked with [a certain] religion.  Hopefully, we become more aware that terrorism committed by anybody with any religion is a universal enemy of humanity.  We have to open our eyes widely that after Bali, Marriott, and New York, terrorists have no respect for humanity....  The police in this country, despite all their shortcomings, deserve appreciation for their work and authority.  Otherwise, who else can we trust in this country for law enforcement?  Terrorism is a universal enemy of humanity. Therefore, support the police in their work to unravel terrorist networks.  Stop quarreling about Hambali or anybody the police arrest in the war against terrorism.”


Mystery of Hambali"


Muslim-intellectual Republika asserted (8/19): "Hambali's arrest was greeted with glee by many countries.  The U.S. government called it an important victory in the global war against terror....  This is different from what happened in Indonesia.  Indonesian officials appeared very careful about discussing Hambali's arrest in Thailand.  The Indonesian government released the news three days after the event, on Friday.  That was after the U.S. had made it public--although the Indonesian Chief of Police claimed he had been informed immediately after the arrest.  Even up to this moment, the Indonesian government is saying it does not know Hambali's whereabouts in the U.S....  There was a statement that Hambali was not an Indonesian, but a Spanish citizen.  The government's reason was that he was carrying a Spanish passport when he was arrested.  On that basis, the government feels it has no responsibility to protect Hambali's rights as an Indonesian citizen.  This leaves the impression that Indonesian has handed over the Hambali question fully to the U.S.  If that is so, the people should be asking about this country's sovereignty. and the inability of the government to safeguard that sovereignty....   It is reasonable for the people to ask: in these cases of terrorism, who is the Indonesian government working for?"


“Hearing From Hambali’s Own Mouth”


Independent Koran Tempo stated (8/16): “Hambali was reported arrested.  President George W. Bush welcomed the news joyfully and stated that the arrest as “another important victory in the war on terrorism and a strong blow to enemies”....  Where are the whereabouts of Hambali now? That is the point...the Indonesian security apparatus seems not to have adequate information on Hambali’s arrest.  If the Indonesian security apparatus, the Police and Intelligence body were involved in the hunt for Hambali, Indonesia’s lack of information is impossible.  Therefore, it’s reasonable if we assume that our security apparatus was not involved intensively in the hunt.  Meanwhile, the U.S.--seeming to hold control of this operation--keeps its mouth shut on Hambali’s whereabouts....  If he is really Hambali, Indonesia has great interest in finding out his role in terrorist acts, especially in Indonesia.  Hearing directly from Hambali’s mouth may not be enough, yet an approach in that direction should be sought; not only just taking materials provided by other parties.”


 “Hambali Arrest Causes Big Sensation”


 Leading independent Kompas wrote (8/16): “Hambali’s arrest in Thailand this week has immediately received broad attention both at the regional and global level.  The uproar was heightened because Hambali was directly handed over to the U.S....  Whatever the case, Hambali’s arrest was regarded as the peak to a long manhunt, which involved security apparatus and intelligence from a number of countries, including the U.S.  Maybe, for that reason, the success of Hambali’s arrest was regarded as one of the successes in the war against terrorism....  For Indonesians, Hambali is not well known.  However, from the reactions of foreign countries, we see that Hambali is a figure who scared people.  Even President Bush identified him as a very dangerous person....  Although Hambali’s arrest has relieved us, new anxieties also arise.  There is a fear of terrorist attacks as retaliation to his arrest.  Yet people are impatient to wait for the results of the U.S. interrogation with Hambali.  If the allegation against him is true, his arrest is expected to open the way to uncovering international terrorism in Southeast Asia.”


MALAYSIA: "No Room For Complacency As Terror Lurks In The Region"


The English-language Kuala Lumpur Star (8/24): "Among the most troubling challenges of the day for South-East Asia is the terrorist tendency in certain shadowy groups and individuals. To help find the answers, more light needs to be thrown on them.  This means that just as we should not hide the nature or degree of the difficulty, we should not exaggerate it either....  Now that something more of the problem is revealed, the authorities are suspected of underplaying it.... Malaysian society is not hospitable to terrorist acts or sentiments, however one may wish to take a cross-section of it. Malaysian realities do not encourage or condone terrorist urges or tendencies.  Herein lies another irony: the gentle, peaceful version of Islam in South-East Asia originated in a then-Malayan state, the Malacca Sultanate, from which it spread to the Philippines and Indonesia.  Today, it would seem that a more violent form is trying to spread here from abroad....  Hambali has been caught, but Fathur Rohman al-Ghozi has escaped. Dr Azahari is still at large, along with Hambali's associates and several others....  There is no room for complacency. Much more important work remains to be done. It is hoped that if countries in this region can cooperate more closely against terror suspects, they might also cooperate better in other respects....  Terrorist activities are more harmful in this region than elsewhere because of our greater economic promise, social need and political stake. Since we can afford to tolerate the excesses of such troublemakers far less than others, we must make a greater effort to eliminate them."


"The APEC Summit In Bangkok Will Not Be Safe Yet"


Government-controlled Utusan Malaysia argued (8/19): "The arrest of Jemaah Islamiah [JI] operations chief Hambali last week proved that terrorists had indeed planned to do something during the forthcoming APEC summit in Bangkok....  The al-Qaida leader in Southeast Asia was said to have drawn up several strategies to commit an attack on the summit.  He was said to have visited several important sites of the summit and obtained details about U.S. interest in Thailand....  The detention of Hambali is the greatest success after the U.S. arrested Khalid Shaykh Muhammad, a suspected planner of the 11 September 2001 attacks....  Hambali is wanted by authorities in Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore, and the Philippines.  Certainly, his detention will help settle many cases of terrorist attacks, especially those in Bali and at the luxurious JW Marriott Hotel in Jakarta early August.   Nevertheless, the detention of Hambali has not ended the threat of terrorism in Southeast Asia."


"American Interest"


Government-influenced, English-language New Straits Times judged (8/19): "It is to be hoped the Hambali breakthrough does not lead to an American impatience and hastiness to get to the bottom of his part in and knowledge of Sept 11, which could result in the postponement of preventive action that has to be quickly taken, and in the slow unraveling of recent acts of terror in the region in which he is suspected to be directly involved.  The Sept 11 connection will come out and, while it may be history, the information also has contemporary and preventive relevance.  Therefore, the American interest in the matter cannot be ignored and must be recognized.  However, any tendency to give an overly American-led transnational edge in the fight against international terrorism, must be tempered with a sensitivity towards national sovereign rights, immediate regional terror concerns, even interpersonal relations.  While the commitment is there, you do not shove co-operation down people's throats by configuring the front-end fight against terror exactly in your own image.  Also, it is to be hoped there will be no unseemly rush to get custody of Hambali, to send him to Guantanamo or wherever, to get his just deserts.  Where he will be tried depends on the evidence that is weaned from the interrogation of him which most clearly links him to a specific act or acts of terror.  The Americans have always been impatient, seeking an early outcome, suspecting others and their due process, certainly after Sept 11.  The outcomes have been to invite fear, and also hate, breeding more terror.  It is important that, even if there are major differences over how best to comprehensively defeat international terrorism between the U.S. and the rest of the world, at the front-end of the fight, where there is commitment and co-operation, which has resulted in this instance in the significant capture of Hambali in Thailand, there continues to be the spirit of working together. Let us not screw up."


"Nightmare Thwarted"


The government-influenced, English-language New Straits Times observed (8/18): "The arrest of Hambali bin Mohammed, born Riduan Isamuddin, in a joint Thai-CIA operation abetted by intelligence sharing across the region is a breakthrough in the war on terrorism.  Dubbed the Usama bin Laden of the Far East, he was wanted by four countries for crimes ranging from bank robberies to bombings, as well as abortive schemes to bomb American airliners and US military targets in Singapore.  hat this point man of al-Qaida and head of Jemaah Islamiyah managed to stay ahead of the security forces for so long shows that the terror cells linked to him are difficult to monitor, target and neutralize by employing the traditional tools of law enforcement range. This is the lesson learned from the long search for Hambali--that innovative methods must be acquired to hunt for the ready-to-die members of the organisation.  We must not be overly triumphant over Hambali's arrest.  For one thing, both al-Qaida and its Southeast Asian offshoot, JI, have an unusual capacity to withstand sustained human losses and material wastage."


SINGAPORE: "Hambali, At Last"


The English-language, pro-government Straights Times editorialized (8/16): "The reported capture of Hambali is one of the best things to have happened on the counter-terrorism front in a long while.  He was a critical link between Jemaah Islamiah [JI], whose operational leader he was, and Al-Qaida, on whose military committee he sat, the only non-Arab to do so.  Crippling that link is a blow against a network that thrives on its international links....  Hambali was the invisible face of Muslim militancy.  Unlike radicals whose faces and voices were well-known because of their use of the media, Riduan Isamuddin reveled in anonymity as he worked to lay the basis of a caliphate in South-east Asia by destroying the existing infrastructure and prospects of the region.  His capture strikes a psychological blow against the mystique of invincibility in which fanatics and extremists clothe themselves....  However, to take one cog out of a wheel is not to stop it.  An organisation as structured as the JI, with dedicated and disciplined members who are ready to die as much as to kill, cannot be crippled by the capture of one man, no matter how central he was to its operations.  There is, therefore, no doubt that it will continue to be a threat....  Reports on Hambali's capture suggest that it was the result of extensive international cooperation....   Whatever the specifics, the larger picture for countries is: Cooperate or suffer.  Governments, in South-east Asia and beyond, need to keep up the intelligence-gathering and -sharing that led to the spectacular success with Hambali....  The capture of a man behind a foiled plot to attack Singaporean and foreign targets here should enable Singaporeans to sleep a little better.  But the next Hambali could be plotting the next move."


THAILAND: "Thais Should Help In The War On Terrorism"


The independent, English-language Nation (8/24): "Over the past couple of weeks, the world has witnessed two major events involving terrorism.  On Tuesday, the United Nations offices in Iraq were devastated by a 450-kg truck bomb, killing at least 24 officials, including Sergio Vieira de Mello, the UN special representative. A week before, Hambali, dubbed Asia's most wanted man for his alleged role in terrorism in Indonesia, was arrested in Ayutthaya following months of multi-national efforts.  In the Hambali case, it is obvious the global war on terrorism is already in our own backyard.  Times have changed, and it's about time we caught up with them."


"Extraterritorial Rights"


Bangkok's elite, liberal Matichon commented (8/21): "As to be expected, the U.S. government faces skepticism in the issue involving Hambali....  While the US government usually urges and pressures other countries to respect human rights, it neglects to do the same.  This is evident in the case of Hambali, whom the US government has taken into custody without allowing him the right to trial in court.  Its action constitutes breach of international protocol and could influence other countries to do the same by citing the US example as justification.  Another inappropriate US action has to do with the way it took Hambali from Thailand without following international protocol, which has elicited criticism against both the Thai and U.S. governments....  The Thai government should have extradited him to Indonesia first."


“Thailand Has Taken Sides”


Nitibhum Nawarat wrote in top-circulation Thai Rath (8/20), “We should be cautious against the U.S.’ drawing us into the terrorism labyrinth....  I understand the Thai government has tried its best to keep the Hambali arrest a secret.  Those who disclosed the story to the international media were U.S. government officials.  Why?  Because they wanted to incite terrorists’ hatred of Thailand and the Thai government.  This one time disclosure by the U.S. government has immediately thrown Thailand into the U.S. and the west’s anti-terrorism camp....  The fact that people in the government are singing the Prime Minister’s praises, declaring that even President George Bush made an overseas phone call to him...has made the situation even worse.  Terrorists will put Thailand and the Thai government on its list of enemies.”


“A Long Way To Go In War On Terror”


Top-circulation, moderately conservative, English language Bangkok Post professed (8/18): "Still, it is difficult to over-estimate the importance of the fall of Hambali.  He may be replaced as JI operations planner, but his ‘skills’ are unique and neither his cunning nor his ruthlessness can be taught.  The Ayutthaya operation is also a devastating blow to the morale of terrorists, coming so soon after the Jakarta bombing.  One must note that Hambali found no help and no sympathy from any community....  One more reason to feel optimistic as the war [against terrorism] continues is the excellent international cooperation in the Hambali arrest.  Indonesia and Malaysia have said publicly they provided manpower and information.  American and Thai agents made the actual raid and arrest.  This is a strong indication that behind the government front of near nonchalance, strong and serious action has been taking place.”


"Arrest Harsh Blow For al-Qaida, JI"


Top-circulation, moderately conservative, English-language Bangkok Post commented (8/18): "The capture of Indonesian terrorist kingpin Riduan Isamuddin has wounded the worldwide capabilities of al-Qaida as well as the Jemaah Islamiyah regional group....  But Hambali, as he is better known, is only a cog in the well-organized terror groups formed during the past 15 years."


“A Clear And Present Danger To Liberties”


Independent, English language The Nation contended (8/16): "The arrest of the Jemaah Islamiyah (JI) terrorist group’s number-two leader Riduan Isamuddin, better known as Hambali, was a major victory in Asia’s fight against international terrorism.  The Thaksin administration should be commended for its success in tracking down Hambali and other JI operatives that have reportedly been using Thailand as a safe haven to plot campaigns of terror in other Southeast Asian countries and throughout the world.  The significance of this arrest in the global war against terrorism cannot be emphasized enough....  Weeding out terrorist cells, which tend to conceal themselves among Muslim communities in different parts of the country, will be a major challenge to Thai security agencies.  Any consequent crackdown on terrorist suspects which calls for drastic action must be conducted in a delicate manner to avoid alienating innocent Thai Muslims....  The timing of Hambali’s arrest appeared to coincide with the Thaksin government’s controversial enactment of executive decrees on terrorism.  These have been criticized as unconstitutional and unwarranted by human rights advocates who fear that civil liberties could be compromised in the name of the war on terrorism....  The Thaksin administration must be reminded that security at the expense of freedom is not an acceptable option for the Thai people.  After all, the true essence of the war against terror is freedom of fear--and freedom without compromise on civil liberties.”




INDIA: "Cooperating Against Terror"


The centrist Hindu commented (8/23): “Riduan Isamuddin, the Indonesian better known as Hambali, is at the center of a diplomatic battle of wits that Jakarta is waging with Washington.  On the surface, the issue at stake is quite simple: a demand by Jakarta for "a quick access" to Hambali, who is in American custody as a terrorist-suspect.  However, the collateral implications of this demand run deep and, in fact, impinge on Washington's undisguised agenda as a self-styled supercop in the ‘global war against terrorism’....  What upset Indonesia is that one of its own nationals has been dealt with, virtually behind its back, by two other countries, one of which is a fellow-member of the ASEAN....  In a sense, Jakarta's claims of jurisdiction over Hambali go beyond his identity as an Indonesian national.  He is wanted in connection with the Bali outrage....  In Indonesia's view, the absence of a bilateral extradition treaty with the U.S. should not be an insurmountable problem.  In comparison, the U.S. is eager to make the most of Hambali's capture, given his suspected connections with an alleged accomplice of the hijacker-terrorists who was caught in Pakistan some time ago....  Indonesia's diplomatic tussle with the U.S. in this case brings into sharp focus how Washington tends to treat the South East Asian countries as either junior partners in or as players peripheral to its own 'interests' in the ongoing ‘multilateral war on terrorism’....  In East Asia, the general perception of terrorism corresponds to Paul Wilkinson's definition about the ‘systematic use of coercive intimidation’ and also ‘violence’ usually in pursuit of ‘political ends.’



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